Category: Epicanthic fold european

Neoteny in humans is the retention of juvenile features well into adulthood. This trend is greatly amplified in humans especially when compared to non-human primates.

Adult humans more closely resemble the infants of gorillas and chimpanzees than the adults. Neotenic features of the head include the globular skull; [1] thinness of skull bones; [2] the reduction of the brow ridge; [3] the large brain; [3] the flattened [3] and broadened face; [2] the hairless face; [4] hair on top of the head; [1] larger eyes; [5] ear shape; [1] small nose; [4] small teeth; [3] and the small maxilla upper jaw and mandible lower jaw.

Neoteny of the human body is indicated by glabrousness hairless body. Humans also retain a plasticity of behavior that is generally found among animals only in the young. The emphasis on learned, rather than inherited, behavior requires the human brain to remain receptive much longer.

epicanthic fold european

These neotenic changes may have disparate roots. Some may have been brought about by sexual selection in human evolution. In turn, they may have permitted the development of human capacities such as emotional communication. However, humans also have relatively large noses and long legs, both peramorphic not neotenic traits, though said peramorphic traits that separate modern humans from extant chimpanzees were present in Homo erectus to an even higher degree than in Homo sapienskeeping general neoteny valid for the erectus to sapiens transition although there were perimorphic changes separating erectus from even earlier hominins such as most Australopithecus.

The type specimen of sediba had these non-neotenic traits despite being a juvenile, suggesting that the adults may have been less neotenic in these regards than any Homo erectus or other Homo.

With heterochrony being more of an umbrella term, there are two different types of heterochrony where development timing is altered: paedomorphosis and peramorphosis. These terms refer to deceleration and acceleration of development, respectively. Many prominent evolutionary theorists propose that neoteny has been a key feature in human evolution. Stephen Jay Gould believed that the "evolutionary story" of humans is one where we have been "retaining to adulthood the originally juvenile features of our ancestors".

Haldane mirrors Gould's hypothesis by stating a "major evolutionary trend in human beings" is "greater prolongation of childhood and retardation of maturity. Thiessen said that "neoteny becomes more apparent as early primates evolved into later forms" and that primates have been "evolving toward flat face. Doug Jones, a visiting scholar in anthropology at Cornell Universitysaid that human evolution's trend toward neoteny may have been caused by sexual selection in human evolution for neotenous facial traits in women by men with the resulting neoteny in male faces being a "by-product" of sexual selection for neotenous female faces.

Jones said that this type of sexual selection "likely" had a major role in human evolution once a larger proportion of women lived past the age of menopause. This increasing proportion of women who were too old to reproduce resulted in a greater variance in fecundity in the population of women, and it resulted in a greater sexual selection for indicators of youthful fecundity in women by men. The anthropologist Ashley Montagu said that the fetalized Homo erectus represented by the juvenile Mojokerto skull and the fetalized australopithecine represented by the juvenile Australopithecus africanus skull would have had skulls with a closer resemblance to those of modern humans than to those of the adult forms of their own species.

Montagu further listed the roundness of the skull, thinness of the skull bones, lack of brow ridgeslack of sagittal crestsform of the teeth, relative size of the brain and form of the brain as ways in which the juvenile skulls of these human ancestors resemble the skulls of adult modern humans. Montagu said that the retention of these juvenile characteristics of the skull into adulthood by australopithecine or Homo Erectus could have been a way that a modern type of human could have evolved earlier than what actually happened in human evolution.The epicanthic or epicanthal fold is a normal feature of fetuses of all races but is present in a pronounced form and in high concentrations in humans of certain geographic races and subraces.

The presence or absence of the epicanthus, which helps produce in Asians a distinctive eye shape and facial appearance, has helped fuel controversies in physical anthropology and evolutionary theory, including historical attempts to establish racial hierarchies based on evolutionary fitness and disputes concerning the nature of evolutionary adaptation.

In addition, epicanthic folds in individuals of groups without a high normal incidence of its presence is often phenotypic of genetic or congenital disorders. In some recent debates, the alleged absence of the fold in some depictions and descriptions of humans from Chinese and Indian history has led some Afrocentric historians to claim an African origin of at least some aspects of Indian and Shang dynasty Chinese culture.

In addition to Asians and eastern subarctic and arctic Eurasians, some native American peoples especially those of Middle America and some populations in South American lowland areasthe Capoid local race of southern Africa, and some of the composite racial groups of Pacific island peoples have high incidence of developed epicanthic folds. The fold occurs less frequently in Southeast Asian populations and in North American Indian groups but occurs occasionally in some European groups, for example in some Scandinavians and Poles.

While epicanthic folds occur more frequently in Asiatic groups and those peoples genetically linked to Asiaits presence is not universal in these peoples and it occurs less frequently in other groups. The incidence of epicanthic folds varies widely among the nine major geographic races and their local races. Attempts to define racial groups by the presence or absence of such features, by phenotype, rather than by genotype and specific inherited traits, are historically problematic and scientifically unreliable.

Thus, the presence or absence of a developed epicanthic fold, while an indication of one of a number of genetic origins and an important diagnostic feature of certain genetic disorders, cannot bear the cultural freight often bequeathed to it by history, pseudo-science, and prejudice.

The association of the epicanthic fold with Mongolians and Asians more generally served to reinforce notions of racial and cultural supremacy in nineteenth and early-to-mid twentieth century European physical anthropologyphysiognomyand racial theory. Humans with the genetic anomaly now known as Down's syndrome, caused by having three copies trisomy of chromosome 21, have limited physical growth and mental retardation of varying severity, and an increased risk of other serious physical problems.

Down's syndrome is one of the more common chromosomal defects, occurring on average in 1 in live births. The Down's syndrome infant is quickly recognized by both facial and more general cranial characteristics, including a rounded head, short neck, thin and usually fine hair, flat nose, small mouth, and, especially, slanting eyes with pronounced epicanthic folds.

Down's report on this condition is an important example of the influence of cultural assumptions both on reading facial features and on the construction of anthropological theories designed to categorize and judge peoples: his comparison of European children born with a chromosomal disorder with the normal features of many Mongolians was both scientifically inaccurate as an analysis of the condition and a patronizing mischaracterization of Mongolians.

Epicanthal folds

In the latter condition, the epicanthic fold is inverted, extending from the lower eyelid up the side of the nose. Folds also occur in certain congenital conditions, including fetal alcohol syndrome. While the facial anomalies of infants with fetal alcohol syndrome are usually less pronounced than those of a Down's syndrome child, some of the same features occur, including a flat nose and nasal bridge, and developed epicanthic folds.

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epicanthic fold european

Home Medicine Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps epicanthic fold. Learn more about citation styles Citation styles Encyclopedia. More From encyclopedia. Most analysts e.Q--Is there a theory that explains the evolutionary advantage of the shape of the eyes found among Asian people?

A--There is no complete evolutionary explanation for the apparent slant of the eyes common to Asians. The configuration, not actually the shape of the eyeball, results from a fold of skin of the upper eyelid, the epicanthic fold, which tends to cover the inner corner of the eye.

Frank Poirier, a physical anthropologist at Ohio State University, says the classical explanation of epicanthic fold depicts it as an adaptation to the tropical and arctic regions where many Asians live. The fold is described as a sun visor protecting the eyes from overexposure to ultraviolet radiation or as a blanket insulating them from the cold.

According to Poirier, the problem with this theory is that a substantial portion of the Asian population evolved in areas outside of the tropical and arctic regions. In addition, he says epicanthic fold is not limited to Asians. Kennedy had a variance of the fold and it is found among Europeans, especially the Irish,'' he said.

ORIGIN OF SHAPE OF ASIAN EYES IS STILL A MYSTERY TO SCIENTISTS

Poirier attributes the fold to pleiotropic genes--single genes that control more than one characteristic or function--but he has no explanation for its origin.Learn something new every day More Info The epicanthic fold is a projection of skin between the upper and lower eyelids alongside the nose. It is a common racial characteristic among people with east Asian ancestry.

This fold is present in fetuses and infants of any race, and its continued presence can be a sign of a developmental disorder, although this is not always the case. The epicanthic fold is one of several distinguishing characteristics for persons of Asian descent, particularly those whose ancestors originated in the region from Tibet to Japan. It is also found in Pacific Islanders and Native Americans, who are believed to be descended from Asians, and is not unknown among people of European and African descent.

Some scientists speculate that the epicanthic fold may have been an aid to vision for the people residing in or near the Mongolian desert, providing protection from either glare or airborne sand particles. This is only a theory, however, as the genetic background behind such racial characteristics is still not well understood.

Asian people faced systematic racism when migrating to nations such as the U. In the midth century, some Asians and Asian-Americans actually elected to have plastic surgerycalled epicanthoplasty, to eliminate their folds and make them appear more Western. Epicanthoplasty is a complicated procedure because of the risk of damage to the tear ducts. By contrast, the epicanthic fold is also seen as a sign of exotic beauty in America or Europe, where it is often a rare feature.

The epicanthic fold is sometimes visible during the early development of infants, no matter what their racial background. In non-Asian children, this will often vanish as the facial structure becomes more defined. This is not always the case, however; concerned parents should consult with a medical professional. This term is now considered imprecise and possibly offensive. Perdido - My cousin went to a surgeon in Los Angeles who is an expert at eye enlargement.

The surgeon is Asian himself, so he understands the desire firsthand. He also has extensive knowledge of working with the epicanthic fold. He was able to redistribute the tissue around the inner eye and lower eyelid to prevent scarring.

He made the epicanthic tissue flexible, so this reduced the tension that was holding it in place and hiding her eyes. He didn't want to totally remove the fold, because that would take away the look of her heritage. He restructured it just enough to make her happy and look natural.

Perdido Post 3 I have an Asian friend who is considering having surgery to enlarge her eyes.Epicanthic fold, epicanthal fold, epicanthus is the fold of upper skin over the eye lid that is from one end of the eye to the other.

It is a physical feature but generally associated with race as it is found mostly on Asian. This fold can be seen on some people from Native America and sometimes even on Europeans. The western beauty standard also considers epicanthic fold unpleasant and round eyes beautiful. Due to this, it has given rise to a lot of face alteration among Asians. Well, as per the classic explanation for the fold, it was developed in tropical regions to protect from UV rays or in Arctic regions as insulation from the cold.

Well, yes. Some scientists also think that the epicanthic fold may have been a tool for vision to the people residing in or near the Mongolian desert as it gave protection from either glare or airborne sand particles. Epicanthic fold can be mostly seen on Asians. Is epicanthic fold just because of genetics? Well, no. But this term was also used to discriminate Asians by Caucasians.

There are prejudices with Asians who have epicanthic fold. The round eyes with perfect eyelashes are considered beautiful which genetically, the Asian are not gifted with. This is all because of the Western beauty standards that has been followed. A number of Asian women have taken aid of surgery to get rid of their epicanthic fold.

The surgery is called Blepharoplasty. It is a type of cosmetic surgery where the skin around the eye is reshaped to create an upper eyelid with a crease. Korea is the country where alarming rates of plastic surgery takes place. It has been culturally accepted surgical alteration that they perform on themselves. All the fetuses have epicanthic fold no matter the race. Asian born or not, babies when born can have epicanthic fold that will disappear with age.

It is to protect the eye of the baby. Having an epicanthal fold is a part of an identity. The Asians can be stereotyped with having an epicanthic fold but it is their identity nevertheless.

Top 10 things to know about Reggie Weed. Top 10 interesting facts about Carrier Pigeons. You may also like.Learn something new every day More Info The epicanthic fold is a projection of skin between the upper and lower eyelids alongside the nose. It is a common racial characteristic among people with east Asian ancestry. This fold is present in fetuses and infants of any race, and its continued presence can be a sign of a developmental disorder, although this is not always the case. The epicanthic fold is one of several distinguishing characteristics for persons of Asian descent, particularly those whose ancestors originated in the region from Tibet to Japan.

epicanthic fold european

It is also found in Pacific Islanders and Native Americans, who are believed to be descended from Asians, and is not unknown among people of European and African descent. Some scientists speculate that the epicanthic fold may have been an aid to vision for the people residing in or near the Mongolian desert, providing protection from either glare or airborne sand particles.

This is only a theory, however, as the genetic background behind such racial characteristics is still not well understood. Asian people faced systematic racism when migrating to nations such as the U. In the midth century, some Asians and Asian-Americans actually elected to have plastic surgerycalled epicanthoplasty, to eliminate their folds and make them appear more Western.

Asian Eyelid Surgery - Challenge of Changing the Epicanthal Fold after Previous Surgery

Epicanthoplasty is a complicated procedure because of the risk of damage to the tear ducts. By contrast, the epicanthic fold is also seen as a sign of exotic beauty in America or Europe, where it is often a rare feature.

The epicanthic fold is sometimes visible during the early development of infants, no matter what their racial background.

In non-Asian children, this will often vanish as the facial structure becomes more defined. This is not always the case, however; concerned parents should consult with a medical professional. This term is now considered imprecise and possibly offensive. Perdido - My cousin went to a surgeon in Los Angeles who is an expert at eye enlargement.

The surgeon is Asian himself, so he understands the desire firsthand. He also has extensive knowledge of working with the epicanthic fold. He was able to redistribute the tissue around the inner eye and lower eyelid to prevent scarring.An epicanthic fold is a skin fold of the upper eyelid that covers the inner corner medial canthus of the eye.

epicanthic fold european

Among South Asiansthey occur at very high frequencies among the Bhutanese[10] Northeast Indians[10] Kiratiand certain Adivasi [10] tribes of eastern India.

Epicanthic folds also occur, at a considerably lower frequency, in other populations: Europeans e. Its use, therefore, as a phenotypic marker to define biological populations is debatable. The epicanthic fold is often associated with greater levels of fat deposition around the eyeball, a feature most accentuated in native North Siberian, Aleut and Inuit populations.

The adipose tissue is thought to provide greater insulation for the eye and sinuses from the effects of cold, especially from freezing winds, and to represent an adaptation to cold climates. It has also been postulated that the fold itself might provide a level of protection from snow blindness.

Though its appearance in peoples of Southeast Asia can be linked to possible descent from cold-adapted ancestors, its occurrence in various African peoples precludes a cold-adaptive explanation for it appearing in the latter groups. The epicanthic fold found in some African people has been tentatively linked to protection for the eye from the high levels of ultraviolet light found in desert and semi-desert areas.

Many fetuses lose their epicanthic folds after three to six months of gestation. The epicanthic fold is sometimes found as a congenital abnormality. Medical conditions that cause the nasal bridge not to mature and project are associated with epicanthic folds. He used the term mongoloid for the condition. This was derived from then-prevailing ethnic theory [23] and from his perception that children with Down syndrome shared physical facial similarities epicanthic folds with those of Blumenbach's Mongolian race.

While the term "mongoloid" also "mongol" or "mongoloid idiot" continued to be used until the early s, it is now considered pejorative and inaccurate and is no longer in common use about medical conditions. In Zellweger syndromeepicanthic folds are prominent. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

A skin fold on the upper eye lid. For other uses, see Mongoloid disambiguation. A South Korean person with the skin fold of the upper eyelid covering the inner angle of the eye.

epicanthic fold

Archived from the original on 12 January Retrieved 1 October Sterling Dictionary of Anthropology. Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed. Pearson Longman.